It´s relatively simple - letters generally sound the same despite the words that contain them. There are some exceptions, but unlike English, they follow fairly strict rules, and there aren´t many of them.
Czech alphabet: a, á, b, c, č, d, ď, e, é, ě, f, g, h, ch, i, í, j, k, l, m, n, ň, o, ó, p, r, ř, s, š, t, ť, ú, ů, v, y, ý, z, ž.
The Letters q, w, and x typically exist only in foreign words.
Vowels are short (unaccented) and long (accented), and can be simplified thusly: pronounce the accented vowels the same as the unaccented, just hold them twice as long.
a makes an ‘ah´ sound (as in ‘bus´)
e makes an ‘eh´ sound (as in ‘red´)
i makes an ‘e´ sound (as in ‘bee´)
o makes an ‘o´ sound (as in ‘hot´)
u makes an ‘oo´ sound (as in ‘book‘)
ě makes a ‘ye´ sound (as in the ye in ‘yes´)
y is pronounced the same as i
The following consonants sound the same in Czech as they do in the English examples:
b (as in ‘bed´)
d (as in ‘dog´)
f (as in ‘film´)
g (as in ‘game´)
h (as in ‘hot´)
l (as in ‘lit´)
m (as in ‘meat´)
n (as in ‘not´)
s (as in ‘sad´)
v (as in ‘van´)
z (as in ‘zone´)
Consonants k, p, and t are pretty much the same as in English, just softer - never with the ‘aspiration´ that they may have in English.
c makes a ‘ts´ sound (as in the ‘ts´ in ‘its´)
č makes a ‘ch´ sound (as in ‘cheese´)
ch makes a ‘huh´ sound like in ‘Loch´ - with a bit more phlegm
j makes a ‘y´ sound (as in ‘yes´)
r is rolled, making a ‘rrr´ sound (same as the Spanish r)
ř is the rolled r combined with a ž to make a ‘ rzhuh´ sound
š makes a ‘sh´ sound (as in ‘she´)
ž makes a ‘zhuh´ sound (as in ‘measure´)
ď, ť, and ň are pronounced slightly different than their counterparts d, t, and n.
They´re softer, and sound somewhat like ‘dyuh´, ‘tyuh´, and ‘nyuh´. When these three letters are followed by an ě or an i, they lose the hook but are pronounced the same.
As I said before, all the letters will generally sound the same throughout the Czech language.
A few exceptions:
When ě follows an m, a mňe ('mnye') sound is produced.
Double vowels: ‘au´, ‘eu´, and ‘ou´ are pronounced fluidly; all other double vowels are pronounced with a very brief pause in-between them.
This is the toughest - paired consonants: occasionally, one consonant is written when another is pronounced.
Sometimes b changes to a ‘p´ sound:
g to k
v to f
d to t
z to s
h to ch
ď to ť
ž to š
It happens when one of the letters from the first group (b, g, v, d, z, h, ď, or ž) ends a word (led is pronounced ‘let´) or starts a cluster of consonants that ends in one from the second (p, k, f, t, s, ch, ť, š) group (vstup is pronounced ‘fstup´).
It also happens vice-versa when the last consonant of a cluster is from the first group (kdo is pronounced ‘gdo´).
The ending of an adjective changes depending on the grammatical gender of the noun it’s describing. There are two types of adjectives.
If the basic masculine ending is –ý
basic feminine ending is –á
basic neutral ending is –é
If the basic masculine ending is –í basic feminine and the basic neutral ending are also –í.
To make a verb negative, you just add ne-:
Present tense add ne- before the conjugated form of the verb.
Future tense add ne- before the conjugated form of the future tense of být (budu, budeš...)
Past tense add ne- before the l-form (NOT before the conjugated form of být!)
I don’t love - nemiluju
She will not talk - nebude mluvit
We didn’t have - neměli jsme
(love - miluju, talk - mluvit, have/own - mít)
Imperfective & perfective verbs
Czech language has two types of verbs: imperfective and perfective verbs. Imperfective verbs describe an action like a video, like an ongoing thing and concentrate on the action itself.
Perfective verbs describe an action more like a picture, like something that happened at a certain time and concentrate on the result. This means that most verbs come in pairs:
to do - dělat - udělat to buy - nakupovat - koupit to cook - vařit - uvařit to repair - opravovat - opravit to eat - jíst - sníst to paint - malovat - namalovat to sell - prodávat - prodat to give - dávat - dát to write - psát - napsat to wash - mýt - umýt
Learning the Czech Vocabulary displayed below is vital to the language. Czech vocabulary is the set of words you should be familiar with. A vocabulary usually grows and evolves with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge.
Once you´ve got the pronunciation down, it´s time to move on to vocabulary. Here are some basic words and phrases that you´ll likely need to get around town
Here are some words explained in detail:
Greetings/Introductions – Těší mě I’m sure most of us know “Dobrý den” and “Ahoj”. For more formal situations, use “Těší mě”. It is the equivalent of – though not literally the same as – “Pleased to meet you.”
Moving through crowds – S dovolením So you're in Kab and there is a lot of people that just won't let you pass ? Well, it's simple just use the phrase “s dovolením” is a polite way to request that he/she lets you pass.
Disagreement/Dissatisfaction – “Ani náhodou!”
“Nesouhlasím” – “I don’t agree”, and “Nelíbí se mi to” – “I don’t like it.” A little stronger is the exclamation “Ani náhodou!”, i.e.“No way!” It is not very formal and more appropriate amongst close friends.
Pacifying – Nezlob se Here is a very useful sentence. You can use “Nezlob se” (or “Nezlobte se” when being formal or speaking to more than one person) when you want to defuse a situation or show you are not willing to do something, e.g. “Nezlob se, ale neudělám to” (Don’t be upset, but I won’t do it.)
*Grammar point: in Czech the past participle is inflected for the gender of the subject. This means if you identify as male, the past participle ends in ‘l’, for those who identify as female, the participle ends in ‘la’.
Yes - Ano (Ah-no)
No - Ne (Neh)
Good Morning - Dobré ráno (Do-breh rah-no)
Good Day (formal hello) - Dobrý den (Do-bree Dehn)
Hello (informal) - Ahoj (Ahoy)
Good evening - Dobrý večer (Do-bree veh-chehr)
Good-bye (formal) - Na shledanou (Nah skledah-noh)
Good-bye (informal) - Čau (Chow)
Good night - Dobrou noc (Do-brooh nots)
Nice to meet you - Těší mě (Tye-shee Mye)
How are you? (formal) - Jak se máte? (Yak seh mah-te)
How are you? (informal) - Jak se máš? (Yak seh mahsh)
I´m well - Mám se dobře (Mahm se do-breh)
What is your name? - Jak se jmenujete? (Yak seh ymenooyete)
My name is - Jmenuji se (Ymen-oo-ye seh)
Excuse me; forgive me - Promiňte (Promeenyuh teh)
Thank you - Děkuji (Dyekooyee)
Do you speak english? - Mluvíte anglicky? (mlooveete anglitskee)
I understand - Rozumím (rozoomeem)
I don't understand - Nerozumím (nerozoomeem)
Big - Velký (velky)
More - Více (veetse)
Hot - Horký (horki)
Little - Malý (maly)
Less - Méně (menye)
Cold - Studený (stoodeni)
Hands up! - Ruce vzhůru! (Ru-ceh Vzhooru)
Stop! - Stůj! (St-ooj)
On your knees - Na kolena (Nah koleh-na)
Drop your weapon - Polož to (Polo-zhuh to)
Do you understand? - Rozumíš? (Rozoo-mesh)
Shoot! - Střílej! (St-rzhuh-lej)
Fall back - Vrať se (Vra-ts seh)
Run! - Utíkej! (Oot-ek-ej)
Fuck - Kurva (Koor-va)
- Sakra (Sah-kra)
Bitch - Kurva
Cunt - Píča (Pitsha)
Asshole - Čůrak or Kokot (Choorahk) or (Kokh-ot)
Goatfucker - yes we use this - Kozomrd (Kozho-mrd)
Fucker - Sráč (Sratsch)
Motherfucker - Vyjebanec (Vyjebh-nec)
And that is it from me, if you want some more information or help, feel free to PM me or write down in the thread !