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Wolffe

The Chernarussian Virus | A scientific review

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Posted (edited)

Approved by @Major

Written by @Rogério SkyLab

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Report #28 – 07/12/2018 – Conclusion

Helden Tatcher, M.D Ph.D World Health Organization and United Nations affiliate,

Wilson Rhoades, Ph.D.

Introduction

It has been a year and a half since the outbreak started turning pandemic. Today I will close the research cycle of my part on this disease, something that I should’ve done a long time ago alongside my fellow doctors in the Sierra-Romeo F.O.B and Kabanino, and for that I am sorry.

Dr. Rhoades and I have been working together for the last seven reports, where we glanced over the general pathology of the WD Virus, a placeholder name which came from a joke about the “Walking Dead” show, alongside few other additions to symptomatology, anatomical and psychological anomalies. Ever since we started working together, a few lights have been shined upon this research, and the exclusive few minutes of communication with the exterior have proven to be a blessing. Greenland has proven to be the only one trustworthy of our information since the Russians seem to be too focused on power, the North Americans are probably looking to weaponized it, as was the case with Project Manhattan, and the British haven’t contacted us again; I hope that it was due to an external factor.

The Greenland Center for Health Research (GCHR) have claimed independence from their United Kingdom roots when it came to information and interest, and seem to be keeping our operations in secret as we asked, since it would be the best way to approach the situation. We hope that they keep it that way.

In this report, we will put forward all the information we managed to analyze from the WD Virus using Dr. Rhoades’ laboratory and devices, previously cited in Report #22, in order to summarize all the principal items, so that lesser subjects can be checked in previous reports. Although we have been working day and night in this report, the ambient we work in isn’t the best, which requires constant changes to avoid contact with infected and, at times, daily absence of one of the researchers for supply runs; all this meaning that information might be missing. Not to worry, however, it can still be found in previous reports. Also, I don’t recall the term we used for the infected, so I’m just going to call them for what they are.

 

Morphology

The WD Virus, which name should be changed to express his family and genera in the future, is an RNA Virus found inside an ellipsoidal capsid inside a spherical envelope. It was hypothesized that the virus may also be pleomorphic, meaning that the envelope might occur in filamentous form as well, although such thing wasn’t observed. We weren’t able to measure its size or genome due to technical problems. The size is supposed to be somewhat similar to other viruses of this structure, being around 110 nm in diameter.

 

Replication Cycle

Upon entering circulation, the virus will first infect circulating defense cells such as non-resident macrophages and neutrophils. The capsid will attach to the cell’s surface and the viral entry will occur via membrane fusion. Whilst the RNA is integrated into the host’s cytoplasm, the capsid is degraded by the cell’s enzymes. The genetic material will then go through with RNA replication, capsid assembly and release via viral shedding (budding). After few hours of the same process, the host cell will die.

After its first duplication, some of the new capsids will continue on attacking the defense system, whilst others will follow through to the nervous system. It appears that the surface proteins will change upon releasing from the previous host’s membrane, enabling the infection of other cell types. Such a behavior isn’t new, however, the precise way it does so isn’t well known for us.

The W.D virus will proceed to completely disable the infected’s immune system by killing off N.K Cells and lymphocytes. At this point, other diseases might take over the body since it’s protection is gone, but none of the tested bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites have shown aggressive behavior towards the W.D Virus. On the contrary, it will attack parasites, lessen bacterial growth, and sometimes have negative feedback on other virus’ effects on the human body. The latter was mainly tested with the Influenza virus, but we theorized that it might happen with other species as well.

It is very important to note that the type of virus that heads into the nervous system will not infect any other cells. It will affect very specific parts of the brain and medulla, and sometimes, it will not replicate once inside. Why it has such a behavior is unknown to us, since there is no apparent signaling or pathing involved. We hope that future research can investigate this properly.

 

Transmission & Symptoms:

As we’ve mostly seen in virus’ like this one, the WD Virus is transmitted only via bodily fluids. May it be from saliva, sweat, semen, blood, etc… It might also be transmitted vertically from mother to baby. We also theorized that the virus might survive inside mosquitos, meaning a vector-like transmission, however such theory might be only speculation, and couldn’t be tested in Dr. Rhoades’ lab.

Every sample harvested from the already-turned infected have shown enormous quantities of the virus, which would explain its rapid incubation period. No patient has found himself naturally curing the disease with his/her own body, meaning that it is potentially a disease that will, in due time, and if there’s no external intervention, either toughen the rest of civilization, or eradicate it.

The symptoms will be divided into two sections for easier comprehension, being them “pre-turning” and “after-turning”. The pre-turning section will be divided into five stages.

Pre-Turning:

Spoiler

           - Stage 1: The first two hours, where the infected person has just come in contact with the virus. The cells are currently being infected rapidly, but the defense system is trying its best to do their job, which will cause swells on most lymph nodes, the most notable ones being the axillary nodes, the submandibular nodes, the deep lateral cervical nodes (anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle) and the posterior auricular nodes. The swelling is followed by high fevers and nausea, which can be attributed to the inflammation process.

           - Stage 2: The next two hours, where the host will already have neural cells infected. The majority of patients have shown that vomiting begins to be a symptom at this point, and it follow through the next stages. There will also be signs of dehydration, high systemic blood pressure and elevated cardiac frequency.

           - Stage 3: The next four to seven hours. At this point, there is nothing more to be done for the host, and it will most certainly fall to the other symptoms. The infected will begin sensing aching and irritation at various points of his body, mainly being the ones affected by cervical sensory neurons (head, neck, shoulders, the most lateral side of one’s arm, hand and fingers). By then, the host might develop loss of balance and loss of strength, mainly due to the fever and dehydration causing severe weakness and the elevated BP causing lesser oxygenation of the brain. The majority of patients have shown arrhythmia during this stage.

           - Stage 4: Usually happens around eleven hours after initial infection. This Is where the most severe of symptoms begin showing. There will be a sudden change of pace within the circulatory system of the host, where the blood pressure will drop significantly, whilst the cardiac frequency keeps high and sometime arrhythmic. The resulting effect is the over-dilation of blood vessels all over the body, such as in a hemorrhagic fever, where blood will leak through capillaries, arterioles, venules, thin tissue such as in the liver glomerulus, many mucous regions, and most importantly the pulmonary alveolus. This will follow by coughing blood, and the vomiting will turn ever more intense, now with large amounts of blood. Also, a notable symptom as an indicatory of this stage is blood coming out from the infected’s eyes at times, characterizing haemolacria. Patients have shown a trend of delirium, hallucinations and agitation during this stage.

           - Stage 5: This stage happens right after 12 hours of initial infection. It will set the turning point from consciousness to the hyper-aggressive state we see in late infected hosts. There will be unresponsive behavior, excessive salivation, and soon after, the majority of patients will have few minutes (ranging from 12 to 54 minutes) of seizures, mainly of the absence type, where they will stop doing whatever they were doing and go into a trance-like state. Otherwise, there will be a full on clonic or tonic-clonic seizure, meaning jerky movements and convulsion. The GCS score of patients in this state seem to vary from 4 to 7, but the cardio-respiratory system is still able to work without mechanical assistance. Host’s that go through absence-type seizures seem to have better “prognostic”, meaning their motor function won’t be too damaged. At this point, neural damage is certain, and the entirety of the brain and medulla are affected.

After-Turning:

Spoiler

The host will have now snapped from the seizure, and begin to act in the state we are all familiar with. Their behavior changes completely to a primal-like and instinct-leaded non-conscious creature. There will be a sudden increase to sound sensitivity and hyper-aggression. The body of a turned infected will have its durability decreased significantly when compared to healthy humans.

Although internal infections due to other beings are surprisingly minimal, skin and genitalia infections seem to be common, leading to the rash-like wounds, which will eventually leak blood due to the hemorrhagic fever. The skin might turn pale and necrotic due to the lesser blood flow, dehydration and bacterial infection, followed by fungi. Hemorrhage might cease after few minutes after turning, appearing back from time to time (can disappear and come back in a matter of minutes, or sometimes even days). We think this is due to fluctuation on vasodilation caused by the Medulla.

The late infected might have black fluids dripping from orifices and rashes, which were identified as clotted blood, mucus and exudate from the originary tissue, sometimes characterizing an abscess. The late infected might also develop a vocal cord cyst, possibly due to blockage of the mucous gland’s excretory duct caused by blood clotting over it.

 

Effects on Brain and Brainstem:

Although it was not our shared specialty, neurology was something we tried our best to uncover ever since we found a Guyton book inside an abandoned house. We couldn’t test turned subjects, of course, since they wouldn’t remain still in the scanner’s bed, however, we managed to test a single host in Stage 4 of the WD Virus, and got simple results that didn’t completely conclude our hypothesis, however, we managed to bring at least some information into the subject for the research center to analyze.

It would seem that there are certain parts of the brain and brainstem that are severally affected by the virus. We decided it would be best to analyze this by elimination. When asking ourselves which were the necessary parts of the brain for the infected to act like they do, we came up with different answers, and the book didn’t help much, but we managed to get a grasp.

The main theory is that the following parts of the brain are necessary:

Spoiler

            - Amygdala: The amygdala is a must-have for the infected, since it is the main cause of the hyper-aggression. Most of the times, it was also found that the amygdala was hypertrophic, meaning that it was acting even more than in us humans.

           - The Motor Cortex: Due to obvious association, the motor cortex is needed for locomotion, and the entire movement of the body. Some infected might have sustained damage to this area due to decortication (as seen in the tonic-clonic seizure) and thus might have movement imparities, although not many have been seen.

           - The Sensory Cortex: We didn’t agree much on this one, but one thing was for sure. At least some parts of it needed to be functional in order to command movement, otherwise the body wouldn’t move.

           - The Basal Ganglia: We agreed that at least some sections of the basal ganglia needed to be active so the infected would have its primal-level instincts and needs, such as when to run towards noise, when to attack prey, etc…

           - Thalamus: Was also a must-have in order to relay and process sensory information to the rest of the cortex.

           - Hippocampus: Although certain parts of it might be damaged, some of it needs to stay healthy in order for signals pass through. It would seem like the hippocampus’ function of homeostasis is irregular, just as is the function that impedes hyperphagia (eating, but never feeling satisfied) which supports that part of it is disabled, whilst the other is working.

           - Midbrain: Needs to be working in order to allow sensory signals to pass through, not only from the medulla, but from the black substance, which plays an important role in movement.

           - Pons & Cerebellum: Needed for the sense of balance and movement. We believe that the cerebellum might be slightly damaged since infected seem to have a lesser sense of depth and lack motor skills.

           - Medulla: Definitely needed in order to transmit signals from the brain to the spinal cord, and also to control the entire cardio-respiratory system.

All other brain parts aside from these ones seem to be damaged, at least to some extent, since the infected show no sign of personality, consciousness aside from primal levels (granted by the limbic system), and overall ability do to anything than survive in their own terms. The Frontal Lobe, for instance, has always been the first thing we noticed different in the testing subjects’ brains. Most of it, if not all, will be necrotic. The occipital lobe hasn’t been found so predominantly dead, however, it seems like it isn’t working the way it should be, as seen from the CT scan.

 

Conclusion

The WD Virus has been shown to be exceptionally good at what it does: killing a host and keeping it alive. Although it is science fiction material, the virus is very real, and it is killing people every day, be it by body-fatigue or by spreading the infection.

We have confirmed its actions from the micro to the macro, going from its infection mechanism into its effects on the human mind. It will rapidly infect a host, and then deteriorate its health condition by every hour, until there is no health anymore, and only the virus.

The host will adopt a hyper-aggressive stance, and hyper sensibility to sound, with its sight being slightly disabled. The infected will inspect anything that moves, and if it moves or sounds like something big or too loud, it will go after it, bite it, and try to eat it. The main way that these infected seem to keep alive is by eating, be it animals, humans or even themselves, they will eat.

It is their only instinct, and they will follow it until their death. Death which will be caused either from full body fatigue, meaning that the body will die out of lack of energy, possibly from starvation, or from traumas, such as contusing or perforating wounds. The most effective way is to aim for the head, which would cease all motor function. However, they are as mortal as we are, and shots to the body will also kill them in due time thanks to hemorrhage.

But now, it’s finally time to finish this chapter, once and for all. The WD Virus now has been researched by many people, on multiple occasions, but I don’t think any of them got as far as we did. We hope that this report will help the future generations, and that, perhaps, it can lead into a brighter future where the humans can stop the spread of the infection. Additionally, we would like to propose for the virus to be called the Chernarussian Virus until proper classification.

We also hope that this will be the last report sent, and that there will be no further need of our help in researching the infection, since we have gone through every detail possible in our current situation. It has been a pleasure working with the brilliant minds of the Greenland Center of Health Research, just as much as it has been working with Dr. Rhoades.

 

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As a footnote, I’d like to say sorry for my absence in the time that I was needed the most, but also, thank all the folks from the United Nations for making this possibility come true, alongside all my W.H.O friends. To all these people that might never see this, or even remember my name, I dedicate this work.

Col. Jack Ripley, Maj. Kristian Holmen, Cpt. Casper Hawk, Dr. Faith Capella, Dr. Luke Andersson, and all others that my memory fails to remember. This is for you.

Edited by Wolffe
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❤️ you made up for it buddy, really well done! ❤️ Faith would be proud ❤️ 

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Very good

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Posted (edited)

Sheesh, you are still alive eh?

And thinking about it, you were my first in-game contact in this community. So props I suppose.

 

E: Also very, in simple terms, "immersive" report that indicates professional experience about such topics (or a lot of research) to cover believable (to an outsider's view anyway) wording and approach to the topic.

Edited by Combine

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On 6/6/2019 at 7:19 PM, Mademoiselle said:

❤️ you made up for it buddy, really well done! ❤️ Faith would be proud ❤️ 

Thanking you once more for letting me join the W.H.O on last notice and teaching me a lot of the stuff I needed to know. Hope to get back in touch whenever, I have a lot more medical experience now, and I'm just a little bit over-excited to log back in when i get my hands on my old PC!

5 hours ago, Combine said:

Sheesh, you are still alive eh?

And thinking about it, you were my first in-game contact in this community. So props I suppose.

E: Also very, in simple terms, "immersive" report that indicates professional experience about such topics (or a lot of research) to cover believable (to an outsider's view anyway) wording and approach to the topic.

Never felt so alive! A pleasure to hear from you again. We should get back in touch when I return to the game, or perhaps a discord call? Idk. Still remember that radio call; had a civie with me and was leading him to a "safe-zone". The other calls after that just as much!

And yes, I'm both having experience and a lot of research on the matter. I'm in Medical School now, and oh boy, I see a lot of things I didn't see back then. I hope that the report was understandable if you didn't know many of the stuff I was talking about, since it was one of my big problems. It should be a better take on the infection than the one pinned, and I'm hoping it will help people understand how it would work realistically!

Thanks, again, for commenting. It really means much! 😄

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